Medication Directory

Drug  Indications Side Effects
Brivaracetam (Briviact®)
  • Focal epilepsy in patients 16 years or older
  • Rash
  • Swelling
  • Feeling sad
  • Depression/suicidal thoughts
Carbamazepine (Tegretol®. Tegretol® XR, Carbatrol)
  • Monotherapy and adjunctive for focal epilepsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Contra-indicated in absence and myoclonic seizures
  • Changes in blood cell counts
  • Sleepiness, dizziness, blurred vision
  • Vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
  • Depression/suicidal thoughts
Clobazam (Onfi®)
  • Adjunctive for LGS in patients two years or older
  • Serious Skin rash/Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • Trouble using the bathroom,
  • Tiredness
  • Suicidal thoughts/depression
Clonazepam (Klonopin®)
  • Monotherapy or Adjunctive for LGS, akinetic and myoclonic seizures,
  • Refractory absence seizures
  • Panic disorder
  • Periodic leg movement
  • Neuralgia
  • Drowsiness
  • Withdrawal seizures
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
  • Tolerance is common in long-term use: seizures may recur and require dosage increases
Clorazepate (Tranxene T-tab®)
  • Adjunctive treatment of focal seizures
  • Treatment for anxiety disorders
  • Acute alcohol withdrawal
  • Depression: sleepiness, behavioral issues
  • Suicidal behavior/ideation
  • Withdrawal seizures/status
  • Trouble sleeping, nervousness
Eslicarbazepine (Aptiom®)
  • Adjunctive or monotherapy treatment for focal seizures (age 18+)
  • Rash,
  • Dizziness
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Depression/suicidal behavior
Ethosuximide (Zarontin®)
  • Absence Epilepsy (age 3 and older)
  • Abnormalities in liver and kidney function
  • Nausea, abdominal discomfort, drowsiness, anorexia, headache, rash
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Ethotoin (Peganone®)
  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures and focal seizures


  • Liver damage
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Felbamate (Felbatol®) 2nd generation
  • Focal epilepsy
  • Primary and Adjuvant for LGS
  • Contraindicated in blood and hepatic
  • Last resort drug.
  • Rarely causes blood counts to go down and liver failure
  • Anorexia, vomiting, trouble sleeping, headache, dizziness
  • Drug rash
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Gabapentin (Neurontin®)
  • Adjunctive therapy in focal seizures with sec GTC > 12 yo and focal seizures in 3-12 yo
  • Trigeminal neuralgia and postherpetic neuralgia
  • Dizziness, fatigue,
  • Dose-related weight gain
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Lacosamide (Vimpat®)
  • Monotherapy or Adjuvant therapy for focal onset epilepsy age >17.
  • Dizziness, headaches, nausea
  • Severe cardiac disease
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Lamotrigine (Lamictal®)
  • Adjunctive tx for focal seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, LGS (> 2 yo)
  • Monotherapy  for focal seizures for those who have tried 1st generation AEDs (> 16 yos)
  • Bipolar disorder ( > 18 yo)
  • Serious Skin rash/Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
  • Mild tremor
  • Headache
  • Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Levetiracetam (Keppra®)
  • Adjunctive tx for focal onset seizures (>4 yo)
  • Adjunctive tx for myoclonic seizures in JME (>12 yos)
  • Adjunctive tx for primary GTC (>6 yo)


  • Coordination difficulties
  • Behavioral problems
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal®)
  • Monotherapy or adjunctive tx for focal onset seizures in adults and 4-16 yos.
  • Not for 1° gen epilepsy because it worsens myoclonic and absence seizures
  • Trigem neuralgia
  • Dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting
  • Blurred vision, tremor
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
  • Rash and Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Perampanel (Fycompa™)
  • Monotherapy tx for focal onset seizures ± GTC (> 12 yos)
  • Adjunctive for PGTC (>12yo)
  • Mood changes and irritability
  • Dizziness, fatigue, falls
  • Nausea
  • Weight gain
  • Focal onset seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Neonatal seizures
  • Status epilepticus
  • Sedation
  • Not usually used chronically due to dose-related side effects
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
  • Withdrawal seizures if stopped abruptly


Phenytoin (Dilantin®, Phenytek)
  • Focal epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Focal epilepsy seizures
  • Status epilepticus
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Abnormal movements
  • Confusion, cognitive changes
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Pregabalin (Lyrica®)
  • Adjunctive tx for partial seizures in adults
  • Diabetic neuropathic pain
  • Post-herpetic neuralgia
  • fibromyalgia
  • Weight gain, poor concentration
  • Blurred vision
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Primidone (Mysoline®)
  • Monotherapy and Adjuvant tx for generalized tonic-clonic, focal and psychomotor seizures (> 8 yo)
  • Refractory GTCs
  •  Essential tremor
  • Sleepiness, rash, nausea/ vomiting
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior


Rufinamide (Banzel®)
  • Adjunctive tx of seizures with LGS in > 4 yos
  • Contra-indicated in Familial Short QT syndrome
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Tiagabine (Gabitril®)
  • Adjunctive therapy for partial seizures (over age 12)
  • Not for patients with primary generalized epilepsy as may worsen myoclonus and absence seizures
  • Tiredness, dizziness, headache, tremor, abnormal thinking
  • Seizures in patients without epilepsy: new onset seizures
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Topiramate (Topamax®, Trokendi XR®, Qudexy XR®)
  • Monotherapy and adjunctive tx in focal or primary GTC seizures (> 2 yo)
  • Adjuvant for LGS (> 2 yo)
  • Migraines in adults
Trokendi XR
  • Somnolence
  • Weight loss
  • Speech disturbance
  • Dizziness
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Topiramate extended-release Forms

Trokendi™ XR

Qudexy™ XR

Trokendi XR:

  • Monotherapy in  ≥ 10 yo with focal or primary GTC, LGX in pts ≥ 6 yo

Qudexy XR:

  • Monotherapy in ≥ 10 yo for focal or primary GTC, adjunctive in pts ≥ 2 yo for focal or primary GTC, adjuvant for LGS ≥ 2 yo
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
  • Somnolence, tiredness
  • Weight loss
  • Speech disturbance
  • Dizziness
Valproic acid (Depakene®)

Divalproex sodium (Depakote®, Depakote ER®)

  • Monotherapy and Adjunctive tx for focal onset seizures
  • Monotherapy and Adjunctive tx for focal onset seizures with and without loss of consciousness
  • Adjunctive for multiple seizure types that include absence seizures


  • Liver failure, pancreatitis
  • High risk of major congenital malformations in children of women taking valproic acid
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea, vomiting, weight gain, transient hair loss
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
Vigabatrin (Sabril®)
  • Adjunctive tx for refractory focal epilepsy in adults who have failed other alternatives
  • Monotherapy for infantile spasms, especially in TS
  • Progressive and permanent visual field constriction requires consent
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior
  • Tiredness
  • Weight gain
  • Tremor
Zonisamide (Zonegran®)
  • Adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in adults with epilepsy
  • May be effective in myoclonus (not approved in US)
  • Rash/Stevens-Johnson syndrome
  • Weight loss, dizziness, eating problems, slowed thinking
  • Depression/Suicidal behavior

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